subpoena

A command, issued under a court's authority, to a witness to appear and give testimony.

 
 

summary judgment

A determination made by a court, applying law to facts, without going to full trial.

 
 

Temporary restraining order

An emergency but temporary order by a court used when immediate or irreparable damages or loss might result.

 
 

testimony

Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.

 
 

Testimony

The evidence given by a witness under oath. It does not include evidence from documents and other physical evidence.

 
 

upheld

The appellate court agrees with the lower court decision and allows it to stand.

 
 

uphold

The appellate court agrees with the lower court decision and allows it to stand.

 
 

Venue

Authority of a court to hear a matter based on geographical location.

 
 

verdict

The decision of a trial jury or a judge that determines the guilt or innocence of a criminal defendant, or that determines the final outcome of a civil case.

 
 

Writ of certiorari

An order issued by the Supreme Court directing the lower court to transmit records for a case for which it will hear on appeal.